Eastern towhees typically nest on or near the ground. Several literature reviews note the predominance of eastern towhee nests below 5 feet (1.5 m). In a study of cowbird parasitism on Sanibel Island, all 5 eastern towhee nests located were within 6 feet (1.8 m) of the ground. Nests as high as 18 feet (5.5 m) have been reported in literature reviews. Nests higher off the ground in mixed aspen stands of varying ages in Pennsylvania had significantly (p<0.001) lower nest success. Of 13 unsuccessful eastern towhee nests, 11 were greater than 1-foot (0.30 m) above the ground.